An Archaeological Surprise at Nivin, Peru
(For a Spanish language version of this post, click here.)
This past week, my colleague Elizabeth Cruzado Carranza and I visited Nivín Arqueologia about 25 km from Casma, on the north central coast of Peru. We were not really certain what to expect. We had corresponded via the PIARA and Nivín Facebook pages with Gustavo Valencia Tello a professor in the Nivín k-12 school of 50 students. We knew that Professor Valencia established a museum connected to the school. We also knew that Nivín is located in an archaeologically rich part of Peru’s north coast. We knew that over the past five years Professor Valencia had convinced many area residents to donate their “looted” collections to the school’s museum. Finally, Professor Valencia had noted that there was little interest from the professional archaeological community in the sites at Nivín. That is pretty much what we knew about Nivín when we arrived in Casma this past Sunday.
On Sunday evening Professor Valencia invited us to his home for dinner and conversation. We agreed on a schedule of going to Nivín on Monday morning to tour the museum and school and returning on Tuesday to visit the nearby archaeological sites and meet with the other Nivín teachers.
On Monday morning we headed toward the outskirts of Casma and turned onto an unpaved road for the 25 km bouncing ride to Nivín. I have to admit that I began to wonder what Eli and I had gotten ourselves into. Except for the town of San Rafael about half-way in, the landscape was dotted with the occasional cane thatch house, agricultural fields, scattered grazing livestock and not much else. I wondered what kind of museum could be at the end of this road?
After a one hour ride, we came to a sign that read “NIVIN” with nothing else in sight. We then continued around the bend in the road and came upon what I can best describe as an oasis in a dusty desert. The Nivín school is a manicured space that stands out from the landscape. Here is what we saw:
- the museum that Professor Valencia painstakingly put together over a five-year period. The materials are donated by area residents who looted/collected the materials over the years, often from their own agricultural lands. Professor Valencia uses these materials in his classes to explain everything from ceramic production techniques, cultural identity, osteology, culture change and more. Eli and I had gone to Nivín to discuss how we might assist Professor Valencia in his project. We quickly realized that we were the students that learned much from him during our brief visit. The school in Nivín better incorporates archaeological methods into teaching natural and social sciences than any k-12 school I have experienced in the U.S.
a suite of gardens maintained by the students, teachers, and the community members. The gardens grow subsistence crops of mangoes, corn, passion fruit, chilies, alfalfa sprouts and more and are completely organic. There are also smaller vegetable and medicinal plant gardens. Besides providing food for the Nivín community, the gardens are meant as an instructional tool for the students, the next generation of agriculturalists in the area. Other schools in the region are studying the Nivín model.
- sparsely supplied but impeccably clean and well-maintained classrooms and a basketball court/soccer field. We also saw large banners that reported the awards the school had received from the Ministry of Education.
On Tuesday morning we were back in Nivín with Professor Valencia for our tour of the nearby archaeological site. Over the next 3.5 hours we hiked, walked through agricultural fields, waded across a river (this gringo was not able to negotiate the single log bridge), and traversed a rocky landscape similar to what one might expect of a lunar surface. Here is what we saw:
- a multi-sector and massive archaeological site that spanned the Formative through the Late Intermediate periods. The site is not registered as an official archaeological site.
- The site is slowly being encroached on by agricultural expansion along with huaqueros or looters. The cemetery areas of the site contain many looter pits with broken ceramic vessels and scattered human bone.
- The architectural forms include domestic rooms, cemeteries, 30 m high mounds, and my favorite a boulder some 3.5 m in diameter fashioned into a metate, with multiple grinding depressions and one mano laying nearby. Christian, a Nivín high school student, whose house is on the archaeological site recalls as a youth that there were eight manos laying on/around the metate boulder.
After visiting the site we returned to the school and met with several of the teachers to discuss possible collaborations. We gave the school a laptop computer (from Rhodes College in Memphis) and a flip camera (from the WriteMemphis literacy program) to help launch an oral history program in the village and school. The program will complement other oral history projects we have worked on such as those carried out in both Hualcayán, Peru, and Memphis, Tennessee, US.
After discussing with the teachers possible collaborative/co-creative efforts and mutual needs, on Tuesday evening Eli and I met again with Professor Valencia and agreed to pursue the following projects over the next year:
- Partnering the C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa in Memphis, TN and the Municipal Museum in Caraz, Peru, with the Nivín Museum around oral history projects. The three institutions are at different stages in their oral history processes and can learn from each other. We will seek additional funding to support this work. (An Engaged Scholarship Research Grant from the University of Memphis funded a portion of our oral history work in Caraz and Hualcayán, Peru this summer.)
Elizabeth Cruzado and Gustavo Valencia will co-author a book chapter for a recently contracted volume on museum/community collaboration efforts to be published in the Summer of 2016 by Rowman and Littlefield Press.
- We will discuss forming an expanded range for the type of collaborative projects now carried out by PIARA. This will ideally allow for greater collaboration among Ancash cultural heritage projects and expand access to resources.
- We will investigate returning to Nivín in July or August of 2016 to provide instruction to students in the best practice cataloguing and curation of the collections in the Nivín Museum. (Any museum studies students fluent in Spanish interested in an internship?)
Elizabeth and I have commented several times that we certainly covered a lot of ground and lined up several co-creative projects in just a couple of days! We are excited both about learning from and working with Professor Valencia, his colleagues, students, and the Nivín community in this model program.